World Report 2020: Ethiopia | Human Rights Watch
Events of 2019 Afaan Oromootiin
Lakkaawwiin ummataa kan biyoolessaa wal-falmisiisaa garuu kan yeroon isaa darbe filannoo bara 2020 raawwachuuf karoorfameef haalan akka barbaachisu otoo beekamuu ji’a waxabajjii keessa paarlaamaan biyyattii lakkawwii ummataa kana dabarsuuf murteesseera.
Riiformiin dhaabbilee keessumaa kan akka bilisummaa mana murtiifi tarkaanfiileen murteessoon akka haqa, araaraafi itti gaafatamummaa mirkaneessuu siyaasafi morkii sabootaa yaadessaa ta’aa dhufe sirnaan towachuuf furtuu ta’an baayyee hin tarkaanffanne.
Gareen saba Sidaamaa naannoo uummattoota kibbaa irraa fottoquuf mootummaan federaalaa riferandamii akka raawwachiisu gaaffii isaanii Adoolessaa 18 bara 2018 galfatanii turan. Sabni Sidaamaa saba guddaa naannoo uummattota kibbaa keessa tokko yoota’u gaaffii akkanaa gaafachuuf isa calqabaati.
Mootummaan federaalaa yeroo heera mootummaan murtayee waggaa tokkoo keessatti filannoo san gaggeessu hin danddeenye. Adoolessaa 18 magaala Hawaasaatti walitti bu’insa mormitoota riferendamii barbaadaniif humnoota tikaa gidduutti ta’eefi sanatti aansees haleellaa namootaa Sabaan Sidaama hin taanee irratti raawwate jedhamee gabaafame waliin lubbuun namoota 53 darbuu, namoonni dhibbaataaman lakkayaman qeyeefi qabeenya isaanirraa buqqayuu akkasumas qabeenyi danuun barbadaayuu aangawaan poolisii godinicha ibseera. Taatee kanatti aansuun naannoon ummattoota kibbaa towannoo humna federaalaa jalatti kufeera. Baatii Hagayyaa keessa Boordiin filannoo biyyaalessaa riferandamii Sidaama Sadaasa 13 raawwachuuf Ibsa baase ture. Boodarra garuu gara Sadaasa 20tti achi buteera.
Mootummaan humna eegumsaa kiyya narraa kaasuufi jechuu obbo Jawaar Mohammed irratti hundaawuun mormiin Onkoloolessa 23 Finfinneetti calqabe gara kutaalee Oromia hedduutti babaldhate ture. Mormii kana towachuuf humnootni tikaa humna wal-hingitne keessattuu magaala Ambotti fayyadamaniiru. Magaalota heddu keessatti mormiin sun gara walitti bu’insa hawaasatti jijjiiramee ture. Akka mootummaan jedhetti walitti bu’insi sun du’a namoota 86f sababa ta’eera. Kana keessaa namoonni 10 walitti bu’insa humnoota tikaafi mormitootaa gidduutti ta’een kan ajjeefamaniidha.
Baatii Guraandhalaa keessaa mootummaan labsii waldaalee siiviilii fooyyesseera. Labsii waldaalee hawaasaafi arjoominaa hamaa 2009 baye kan gabaasa mirga namoomaa bilisaa qucaarsee tures haqeera. Seerri haaraan kun qoqqobbii dhibbeentaa 10ni kan bajata burqaa biyya hambaa irra tures kaaseera. Ta’us yaaddoon seeraa kan dhiibbaa biyya ambaa daangeessuu dabalate ammas akkuma itti fufetti jira.
Mootummaan labsii farra shororkeessummaa bara 2009 baye kan sochii heddu dangeesse foyyeeseera. Labsiin haaran isa duraani bakka bu’uuf yaadame hanga barreeffamni kun qophaayutti gamagama paarlaama jala jira. Haata’u malee yaalii fonqolcha mootummaa baatii Waxabajjii naannoo Amaaraatti ta’e jedhameen booda lammileen saba Amaaraa kurnaniin lakkayamaniifi gaazexeessittoonni heddu labsii moofaa farra shorrorkeessumaa duraaniin himatamanii jiru. Hanga barreeffamni kun qophaawutti namoonni 13 himata malee hidhamanii jiru. Hojmaannii yeroo qorannoo baatii 4 labsii farra shororkeessummaan eeyyamamu erga dhumateen boodas yeroo hin murtoofneef himata malee hidhanii tursiisuun ammas raawwiirra jira. Hidhamtoota kanneen keessa 12 miseensota paartiilee siyaasaati. Kanneen keessaas 7 miseensota paartii sosochii saba Amaaraa (NAMA)ti. Namoonni shan(5) ammoo miseensota sochii aadaa saba Amaaraati.
Guraandhala 23, bara 2019 naannoo Oromia karra magaala Finfinnee irraatti digumsa manaafi humnaan buqqisuu mootummaan raawwate jedhame gabaasuuf gaazexeessitoonnii televiziyoona dhuunfaa Marraja jedhamu garasitti imalan lama yeroof hidhamaniiru. Yeroo gadhiifamanis garee dargaggootiin bakka poolisiin argutti uleedhaan reebamanus namuu gocha rebichaa saniif hin towatamne.
Akka gabaasa miidiyaaleetti rifarandamii Sidaamaaf mootummaan yeroo mijeessu diduu irrati mormii ka’ee hordofuun Adoolessaa 18, humnootni tikaa hojjattootaafi miseensota boordii Sidaamaa Miidiyaa Neetwoork towachuun waajjira dhaabbatichaa magaala Hawaasaatti argamu cufaniiru. Hojjattonni hafan Adoolessaa 23 waajjiratti akka deebi’an eyyamamus, hojjattoonni towannoo seeraa jala oolan torbanootaaf himata malee hidhamaniiru.
Hasawa jibbaa miidiyaalee hawaasaa keessuma toora Feesbuukii irratti baay’ataa dhufe hubachuun mootummaan baatii Eebla keessa seera haasawaa jibbaa baaseera. Walitti bu’insa hawaasaa baatii Onkolooleessa keessa mudate hordofuun manni maree Ministeerotaa seera jibbaa qoophayee sana dabarseera. Wixineen seerichaa inni calqabaa hiika haasawaa jibbaa baayyee baldhatee kan haammate yoota’u, sirnaan dhiphifamee kallattiidhaan gochoota okkora kaasan ykn loogii uuman irratti sirriitti hin xiyyeeffatu yoota’e mormii seera-qabeessa hunda uukkamsuuf ooluu danda’a.
Mootummaan Itoophiyaa ammas barmaata intarneeta guutumatti cufuu itti fufeera. Taatee Waxabajjii kan yaalii fonqolcha mootummaati jedhame hordofuun muummichi Ministeeraa barbaachisumma intarneeta cufuu, “intarneetiin qilleensas biishaanis miti” jechuun gotcha sirrii ta’uu dubbatanii turan. Tajaajilli intarneeta cufamee ture Adoolessaa 2 guutummatti deebi’eera. Waxabajjii calqabarras mootummaan tajaajila intarneeta sababa tokkollee otoo hin kenniin torbee tokkoof adda kutee ture.
Buufanni poolisii maakelawwii kan handhuura magaala guddoo Finfinneetti argamuufi iddoo waggoottan hedduuf reebichiifi hiraarsii hidhamtoota itti raawwachuun beekamu erga bara darbe cufamee booda Fulbaana keessa uummataaf banameera.
Akka waliigalaatti hidhaan seer-malee muraasni gabaafamus kutaalee Oromia iddoo ABO fi waraana mootummaa gidduutti lolli godhamutti miseensotni Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo fi namoonni deeggartoota ABOti jedhamanii shakkaman hedduun seer-malee hidhamaa jiraachuu gabaafamaa jira.
Aangawota olaanoo Saadasa, 2018 towachuun alatti dhiittaa mirga namoomaa duraan raawwatameef itti gaafatamummaa mirkaneessuu irratti tarkaanfii xiqqootu fudhatame. Komishiniin araara biyyoolessaa Muddee, 2018 hundeeffamus dirqama ifa hin taanetu itti kenname. Naannoo Somaalee Itoophiyaa keessatti aangawonni mana hidhaa Ogaden iddoo yakki reebichaa, ajjechaafi hiraarsi itti raawwataa ture bulchaa turan dhiittaa ajaja isaanii jalatti raawwatamaniin himatamanii hidhaan itti murtaayeera. Odeeffannoon dhaddacha isaanii garuu uummataaf banaa hin turre.
Komiin yeroo dheeraa qabeenya lafaan walqabatee ka’aa ture fi gaafileen eenyummaa akkasumas sararri daangaalee keessoo yeroo heddu balaa akka walitti bu’insa sabaaf sababa ta’uun ajjeecha hedduufi buqqayinsa maatii hedduuf sababa ta’aniiru.
Akka Waldaan Baqattoota Adunyaa (IOM) gabaaseetti baay’inni namoota qeeyee isaanii irraa buqqayanii hedduudha. Lakkoofsi baatii Adoolessaa akka ibsutti namoonni miiliyoona tokkoo fi kuma dhibba jaha ta’an qeeyee isaanirra buqqayanii jiru. Kanneen keessaa dhibbeentaan 66.4 sababa walitti bi’insa uumameen kan buqqayaniidha. Akka gabaasa dhaabbata buqqayinsa keessoo hordofuu (IDMC)ti ji’oota jahan calqaba bara 2019 qofatti walitti bu’insi sabaa naannolee Oromia, Amaaraa, Somaaleefi Uummata kibbaatti mudate buqqayinsa haaraa 552,000f sababa ta’eera.
Baatii Bitooteessaati hanga Caamsaa qofatti mootummaan namoota qeyee isaaniirra buqayan tilmaamaan miliyoona tokkoo fi walakkaa ta’an ammallee iddoo nagaa hin qabnetti gargaarsa namoomaa danquufi kampii isaanii irratti diiguun qeyee isaaniitti deebiseera. Namoonni qeyee isaaniitti deebi’an gariin sababa nageenyi hin jirreefi gargaarsi namoomaa hin qaqqabneef buqqayinsa lammataaf saaxilamaniiru.
Waldaan Fannoo Dimaa Adunyaa waggaa 11 keessatti yeroo calqabaaf naannoo Somaalee seenee akka hojjatu afferamuun waldaa fannoo diimaa Itoophiyaam wajjiin qindaayuun gargaarsa saffisaa ummata walitti bu’insa hawaasaatiin miidhamaniif raabseera.
Dhimmoonni siyaasa wal-xaxoon towannoo babaldhachuu magaala Finfinneen walqabataniifi fayiddaa addaa Oromian Finfinnee irraa qabdu
kan heerri keenneef mirkanaayu dhabuun wal gaarreffannafi walitti bu’insaaf sababa ta’aa dhufeera. Wal gaarreffannaan kun yeroo, naannoon Oromia ijaarsa seeraan alaa naannoo daangaawaa Finfinnee irratti ijaaraman lakkoofsaan 12,000 ta’an diiguuf baatii Guraandhalaa karoorfatu haalan hammaate ture.
Itoophiyaan gayee gamtaa Afrikaa keessatti taphattuufi gumaacha Nagaa eegduu Mootummoota Gamtoomaniif gootuun, yaalii araara biyyoota naannoo sanii gidduutti buusuu akkasumas yaalii farra shorrorkeessumaa naannoo sanatti godhamu fi gamtoomina dhimmma baqattootaa irratti biyyoota dhihaa wajjiin gooturraan kan ka’e gargaarsa biyyoota alaa fi ollootoshee akkuma dur ammas argachaa jirti.
Muummichi ministeeraa Dr Abiy Ahmed Onkoloolessa keessa carraaqqii nageenyaafi gamtoomina adunyaawaa argamsiisuuf godhaniin keessattu waliigaltee nageenyaa Eertiraa faana mallatteessuu isaaniitiif Noobelii nageenyaa badhafamaniiru. Haata’u malee dhimmoonni wal-xaxoon waliigaltee sana duuba jiran kan akka daangaa biyyoota lamaanii sararuu ammallee rarra’aniituma jiru.
Pireezidaantiin Sudaan Omar Albashir aangoorra kaafamuu hordofuun haasaawaan humnoota raayyaa Sudaaniifi hoggansa paartilee siyaasaa gidduutti addaan cite ture akka deebi’uuf waliigaltee ijaarsa mootummaa cehumsaaf Gamtaa Afrikaa wajjin ta’uun carraaqqiin muummichi ministeeraa Itoophiyaa taasise bu’aa buuseera. Itti fayyadama laga Abbaay iin walqabatee rakkoon Gibxi wajjin ture ol guddatee jira.
Gamtaan Awurooppaa gargaarsa paakejii filannoo Euro miliyoona 10 keessa miliyoona 7 (US$7.8 mil) Itoophiyaaf gadhiiseera. Yeroo gabaasni kun qophaawutti taajjabbiin adunyaawaa filannoo Itoophiyaf karoorfame homtuu hin jiru.
Madaallii yeroo hundagaleessaa kan 2019 keessatti Itoophiyaan madaalli baayyee gaarii argachuun komitee adeemsa addaaf akka dhuunfaatti affeeramteerti. Bara 2006 as yeroo calqabaaf daawwii qaama dirqama qabuuf heeyyamteerti. Raappoortarri addaa bilisummaa yaada ibsachuu mootummoota Gamtoomanii Mudde keessa Itoophiyaa daawwachuuf jira. Gaaffiin raapportara addaa reebicha qoratuu hayyama eeggataa jira.
Lammiileen Itoophiyaa 100,000 ol ta’an Saawudiirraa qabeenya fi maallaqa nyaata, dawoofi geejibaa malee harka duwwaa gara Itoophiyaatti humnaan fe’amaniiru. Baqattoota miidhaan qaamaafi xiin-sammuu Sawudiifi Yemanitti irra gayeef mootummaa Itoophiyaas ta’e dhaabbileen gargaarsa adunyaawaa gargaarsa fayyaa, dawoofi deebisanii hawaasa ganda isaaniitti makuu hin gooneef.
Events of 2019
Human rights reforms implemented by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed during his first year in office were threatened in 2019 by communal, including ethnic, conflict and breakdowns in law and order.
The June 22 assassinations of several high-level government officials, which the government linked to an alleged coup attempt in the Amhara region—as well as political unrest and communal violence in the capital, Addis Ababa, and Oromia following an incident with a popular Oromo activist and media owner, Jawar Mohammed—highlighted increasing tensions ahead of Ethiopia’s scheduled 2020 national elections.
Institutional reforms, notably around judicial independence and concrete measures to ensuretruth, reconciliation, and accountability—all of which are key to dealing with heightened political and ethnic tensions—were limited.
The Sidama ethnic group submitted a request on July 18, 2018, to the federal government to hold a referendum to secede from the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR). The Sidama are the largest and the first among a number of ethnic groups in SNNPR to make such a request.
The federal government failed to organize a vote within the constitutionally stipulated one-year limit. Violence on July 18 in Awassa, capital of SNNPR, between protesters demanding a vote and security forces, followed by reported violence against non-Sidama residents of the region, resulted in the deaths of 53 people according to a zonal police official, the displacement of hundreds, and significant property damage. The SNNPR region was then placed under federal security control. In August, the National Electoral Board of Ethiopia (NEBE) said it would organize a referendum on November 13, which was later delayed to November 20.
Protests that broke out in Addis Ababa on October 23, following allegations by Jawar Mohammed that the government was removing his security detail, and then spread to many parts of the Oromia region, were met on occasion by excessive use of lethal force by the security forces, notably in Ambo town. The protests devolved rapidly into communal violence in several towns. The government said the unrest resulted in 86 deaths, 10 the result of “confrontations” with security forces.
In February, the government approved the Organization of Civil Societies Proclamation and repealed the notorious 2009 Charities and Societies Proclamation, which had decimated independent human rights reporting. The new law lifts its predecessor’s 10 percent foreign funding limit. Concerns with the law remain, including limitations on foreign lobbying.
The government rewrote the country’s restrictive 2009 Anti-Terrorism Proclamation (ATP); the new draft was under review in Parliament at time of writing. However, following the alleged coup plot in June, dozens of ethnic Amharas, including journalists, were held under the ATP’s remand provisions. At time of writing, 13 detainees were still held on pre-charge detention, under an obscure procedure that allows for indefinite pre-charge detention after the four months allowed under the ATP had elapsed. Twelve are members of the political opposition, seven of whom are members of the National Movement of Amhara (NAMA), an ethno-nationalist opposition party, and five are members of an Amhara activist cultural movement.
On February 23, 2019, Oromia regional police temporarily detained two journalists working for the private Mereja TV on the outskirts of Addis Ababa, while reporting on the government’s demolition of homes and allegations of forced displacement. Upon release, they were attacked by a group of young men, and one was beaten with sticks in plain view of police. No one was arrested in relation to the assault.
On July 18, security forces arrested employees and board members of the Sidama Media Network (SMN) and shut down the station in Awassa following protests over the government’s failure to organize a referendum, according to media reports. Workers were allowed back into the office on July 23, but those arrested were detained for weeks without charge.
The government responded to growing hate speech on social media, especially Facebook, by producing a hate speech bill in April. Shortly after the communal violence in late October, the Council of Ministers approved a draft. Earlier drafts included vague definitions of hate speech, which, if not more narrowly defined to specifically address incitement to violence, discrimination, or illegality, may end up stifling legitimate expressions of dissent.
The government continued the practice of shutting down the internet. Following the alleged June 22 coup attempt , the prime minister sought to justify a countrywide internet shutdown, which was only completely restored on July 2, by telling media that the internet was “neither air nor water.” Earlier in June, the government shut down the internet for a week without explanation.
In September, Maekelawi, the police station in the heart of Addis Ababa that for years had been infamous for abuse and repression, was opened for the first time to the public after its closure last year.
While there have been fewer reports of arbitrary arrests overall, there have been ongoing reports of abusive arrests of alleged Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) members and their alleged sympathizers in areas of Oromia where there has been fighting between suspected members of the previously banned OLF and the military.
Beyond the arrests of some high-level officials in November 2018, there has been little progress on accountability for past abuses. A national reconciliation commission was set up in December 2018 but it has an unclear mandate. In Ethiopia’s Somali region, some of those who ran the region’s notorious Jail Ogaden, where torture, rape and death were common, have been sentenced for abuses committed under their command; public information on these trials was lacking.
Longstanding grievances over access to land and complex questions of identity and demarcation of internal borders on occasion led to abuses, including open conflict between ethnic groups, killings, and large-scale internal displacement.
The number of people internally displaced by conflict remained high; according to the International Organization for Migration, 1.6 million people were internally displaced as of July, 66.4 percent due to conflict. The Internal Displacement Monitoring Center reported that ethnic clashes in Oromia, Amhara, Somali, and SNNPR regions led to 522,000 new displacements in the first half of 2019.
Between March and May, the government returned approximately 1.5 million internally displaced people to their home areas, many still unsafe, including by restricting delivery of humanitarian assistance and demolishing camps in areas of displacement. Those that returned often faced secondary displacement due to ongoing insecurity and a lack of humanitarian assistance in areas of return.
The International Committee of the Red Cross, invited back to the Somali region for the first time in 11 years, distributed emergency relief assistance in conjunction with the Ethiopian Red Cross to people affected by communal violence.
Complex and politically charged issues surrounding the management of the ongoing expansion of Addis Ababa, and clarification of constitutional provisions around Oromia’s “special interest” remain unanswered and a growing source of tension. These tensions increased in February when the Oromia regional government announced its plans to demolish 12,000 homes “built illegally” on the outskirts of Addis.
Ethiopia continued to enjoy strong support from foreign donors and most of its regional neighbors, due to its role as host of the African Union, its contributions to United Nations peacekeeping and regional negotiations, regional counterterrorism efforts, and migration partnerships with Western countries.
In October, Prime Minister Abiy was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to achieve “peace and international cooperation,” as a result of the peace agreement signed with Eritrea; yet many of the trickier issues around the agreement remain unsettled, including the border demarcation between the two countries.
Following the ouster of Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir in April and a breakdown in talks between military and civilian parties, the prime minister led efforts to mediate an agreement for a transitional government together with the African Union. However, tensions with Egypt over use of the Nile flared.
In October 2019, the European Union dispersed €7 million (US$7.8 million) of a €10 million (US$10 million) electoral support package. At time of writing, no plans for international election monitoring were in place.
In its 2019 Universal Periodic Review, Ethiopia committed to reviewing outstanding requests from special procedures on an individual basis and has since responded favorably to several, marking the first authorized visits of mandate holders since 2006. The UN special rapporteur on freedom of expression was due to visit Ethiopia in December. A request by the special rapporteur on torture was pending.
Over 100,000 Ethiopians have been deported from Saudi Arabia, many with no belongings and no money for food, transportation, or shelter. Neither the government nor the international community have earmarked adequate assistance to provide deportees medical care to help them deal with injuries or psychological trauma resulting from abuses faced in Yemen and in Saudi Arabia, shelter them, or aid them to return and reintegrate in their home villages.